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According to the last census (31 December, 1900), Bohemia has a population of 6,318,697.It is one of the most thickly settled provinces of the monarchy, having 315 inhabitants to the square mile.The Bohemian rulers of the Luxembourg line, from Charles I, of Bohemia (the Emperor, Charles IV), until the extinction of the dynasty at the death of Sigismund (1437), were all German emperors.Bohemia reached the height of its prosperity under the Emperor Charles IV who conquered Silesia and also occupied for a time the Mark of Brandenburg and the Upper Palatinate.In the confusion which followed the break-up of the Empire of Great Moravia Spitihnev I succeeded in uniting the various tribes of Czechs under his rule.From his time there is an unbroken succession of dukes of the Premysl line.Bohemia (home of the Boii) owes its name to the Boii, a Celtic people which occupied the country in prehistoric times. Some years after the birth of Christ, Marbod King of the Marcomanni, united the German tribes as far as the North Sea and the Baltic to form a great confederation which menaced the Roman Empire.
But early in the seventh century they regained their freedom with the aid of the Frank, Samo, whom the Czechs elected as their king. Eighty years later Borziwoi, Grand Duke of the Cechen (Czechs), seems to have been tributary to Swatopluk, King of Great Moravia.
Soon after this Borziwoi's wife, Ludmilla, and most of his relations were also baptized. Wenzel I (Wenceslaus), was murdered in 935 at Alt-Bunzlau by his brother and successor Boleslaw I. Christianity made such progress in Bohemia that in the latter part of the tenth century (973) the German Emperor Otto I gave the country a bishop of its own with his see at Prague, the capital of the country.
Bohemia had until then formed a part of the diocese of Ratisbon.
In 1344, the Diocese of Leitomischl was founded, while Prague was made an archbishopric with the Diocese of Olmütz as suffragan.
The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries may be called the golden age of Christianity in Bohemia.
After 1437, Bohemia was ruled by kings of various lines until the death of Ludwig II, of the Jagellon dynasty, who was King of Bohemia and Hungary. Both Bohemia and Hungary after this battle came into the possession of Ferdinand I of Hapsburg who had married the sister of Ludwig II.